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The purpose of this article is to describe these basic NDE techniques and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods. Non-destructive examination NDE is used to detect cracks and other flaws in a part without rendering the part unusable by performing destructive testing. Penetrating oils typically contain a red dye and are sprayed or brushed onto the area of the material being tested. To avoid this, any indications should be investigated by polishing and re-evaluating the indication.
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Non-destructive examination basics Patrick J. An example of a gear tooth crack that was made more visible using a dye penetrant examination is shown in Figure 1. They are nondestructive testing methods for aetm discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and are applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination.
The developer brings the penetrating oil out of the discontinuities by a blotting action. This can take e165-2 after the developer is applied. Some equipment manufacturers allow some surface indications, depending on their size and location on a particular part. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish e65-02 safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps:.
Work Item s – proposed revisions of this standard.
ASTM E – 02 Standard Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination
This method substitutes fluorescent penetrating oil for the visible dye penetrant. This might involve sandblasting, wire brushing, etc. SI units are provided for information only. The part then needs to be cleaned to remove the penetrant and the developer.
This is typically done with a special cleaning solvent. As soon as the material is dry, the developer is applied. Agreement by the user and the supplier regarding specific techniques is strongly recommended. Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.
It is a common misconception to label a discontinuity as a crack. These inspections can increase the reliability of the part by providing early detection of flaws that could lead to a failure. Ashm this technique, liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of a material and is drawn into surface discontinuities such as cracks, pits and seams by capillary action. Then the surface must be allowed to dry.
Cracks typically show up as red lines and pits usually look like red dots. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. Active view current version of standard.
After application of the developer, the visual inspection is done with a black light. The reason is that some potable water sources contain chlorine, which can leave a residue on the surface and can lead to cracking in some stainless steels. Some of the most popular NDE methods include: Pre-clean the surfaces to be inspected. The liquid penetrant examination just makes axtm discontinuities easier to see. E165-002 4 Go to Page 1 2 3 4 Edit Story.
This technique can be used on a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous materials, including steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, tungsten carbide, ceramics and plastics. A scratch or a pore can easily be misinterpreted as a crack or flaw, and this can lead to unnecessary and costly repairs. For this purpose there must be a separate code or specification or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable.
The surface then needs to be solvent cleaned to remove any greases or oils. A suitable waiting time allows the penetrant to enter the surface discontinuities, and then excess penetrant can be removed. Liquid penetrant testing Liquid penetrant inspection is the most popular method to check for surface cracks because it is simple and no special equipment is required.
One of the most critical aspects of liquid penetrant testing is interpreting and evaluating the discontinuities. They can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics, certain nonporous plastics, and glass.
Asym Magazine Contact us. The correct term for a discontinuity is an indication, which is not necessarily a crack or a flaw. Another technique involves the use of an ultraviolet light to view the surface discontinuities.