Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology. Rudolph Carnap. [In this essay Carnap is concerned with the question of the “reality” of the sorts of what he calls “abstract. Rudolf Carnap’s article “Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology” deals with the implications of accepting language which refers to abstract entities. Empiricists. Carnap, “Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology”. Major Premise: Accepting the existence abstract entities involves a pragmatic decision to use a certain linguistic.

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Two dogmas of empiricism”. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. They emphasize a distinction between the data that which is immediately given in consciousness, e. The physical state of a space-time point is described either with the help of qualitative predicates, such as ‘hot’, or by ascribing numbers as values of a physical magnitude such as mass, temperature, etc.

The answers empiriciam be found either by purely logical methods or by empirical methods, depending upon whether the framework is a logical or a factual one. These types Xemantics calls internal questions.

Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology. —

Let us be cautious in making assertions and critical in examining them, but tolerant in permitting linguistic forms. Judgments of this kind supply the motivation for the decision of accepting or rejecting the kind of entities. Nor are they subjectiveas there is no reference to a subject, like “There is a p which is necessary for Mr.

The system of integers and rational numbers. It is important to notice that the system of rules empiriicsm the linguistic expressions of the propositional framework of which only a few rules have here been briefly indicated is sufficient for the introduction of the framework. Darren Bradley – – Synthese 5: The distinction I have drawn in the latter book between the method of the name-relation and the method of intension and extension is not essential carnal our present discussion.

Because of space, I will not go into further details Carnap discusses about the systems of integers, rational numbers and semntics numbers that is a little too heavy for evening philosophy anyway! Rudolf Carnap – – Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4 Marc Alspector-Kelly – – Philosophical Studies 1: This makes it plausible to assume that those philosophers who treat the question of the existence of numbers as a serious philosophical problem and offer lengthy arguments on either side, do not have in mind the internal question.


History of Western Philosophy. Here again there are internal questions, carhap. Second, the introduction of variables of the new type. A Note on Ontology and Ordinary Language. Epistemology in 20th Century Philosophy.

notes on “Empiricism, Semantics and Ontology”

Let us now summarize the essential characteristics of situations involving the introduction of a new kind of entities, characteristics which are common to the various examples outlined above.

Quine supposes that a particular linguistic carbap selects from a broad category of meanings for a term, say furniturea particular or subclass of meanings, say chairs. However, if we look at the basic anti-metaphysical and pro-scientific attitude of most nominalists and the same holds for many materialists cagnap realists in the modern sensedisregarding their occasional pseudo-theoretical formulations, then it is, of course, true to say that the Vienna Circle was much closer to those philosophers than to their opponents.

Then the special question of the role of abstract entities in semantics will be discussed. However, none of those alternatives are practical, and that is Carnap’s point. But these questions cannot be identified with the question of realism. This article has no associated abstract. On Carnap’s views on ontology”. Further, a statement of the existence of linguistic entities e. From a Logical Point of View: I take it for granted that the world and the things in it exist for the most part in complete independence of our knowledge or language.

Find it on Scholar. His most famous criticism of Carnap was Two dogmas of empiricismbut this work is not directed at the internal-external distinction but at the analytic-synthetic distinction brought up by Carnap in his work on logic: See Rescorla, Michael Jan 13, Then ‘quantifier variance’ combines the notion that the same object can have different names, so the quantifier may refer to the same thing even though different names are employed by it, and the notion that quantifier expressions can be formed in a variety of ways.


Thus, for example, Ernest Nagel in his review 9 asks for “evidence relevant for affirming with warrant that there are such entities as infinitesimals or propositions.

Quantifier variance and realism”. Therefore the word “number” and numerical variables must not be used unless a way were found to introduce them as merely abbreviating devices, a way of translating them into the nominalistic thing language. On the other hand, the decision to use three rather than two or four spatial coordinates is strongly suggested, but still not forced upon us, by the result of common observations.

But one should not criticize the mathematicians on this score The Journal of Symbolic Logic. While ‘Fido’ designates the dog Fido, ‘red’ and ‘five’ are not names and do not designate anything. Internal questions are here, in general, empirical questions to be answered by empirical investigations.

Revue Internationale de Philosophie. Appeal to ontological insight will not carry much weight. In contrast to the former questions, this question is raised neither by the man in the street nor by scientists, but only by philosophers. Science Logic and Mathematics. It can only be judged as being more or less expedient, fruitful, conducive to the aim for which the language is intended. Meaning in Philosophy of Language. Or finally, it may be meant in the following sense: To be real in the scientific sense means to be an element of the system; hence this concept cannot be meaningfully applied to the system itself.

A related idea is quantifier variance.

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